Cisco CCNP / BSCI Certification: BGP Route Reflector Tutorial
When you’re studying for your BSCI exam and CCNP certification, you quickly realize that BGP is a whole new world from anything you’ve previously studies. One topic that sometimes confuses CCNP candidates is when a BGP route reflector needs to be configured.
In the following example, the routers R1, R2, and R3 are all in BGP AS 100. This is not a full mesh, however. There are peer relationships between R1-R2 and R1-R3, but not between R2 and R3. R3 is advertising network 18.104.22.168/24 via BGP, and the route is seen on R1. R1’s iBGP neighbor, R2 does not see the route.
A basic rule of BGP is that a BGP speaker cannot advertise a route to an iBGP neighbor if that route was learned from another iBGP neighbor. Configuring R1 as a route reflector will allow us to circumvent this rule. The entire route reflector process is transparent to the clients, and no configuration is necessary on those clients. We’ll configure R1 as a route reflector for both R2 and R3.
R1(config)#router bgp 100
R1(config-router)#neighbor 22.214.171.124 route-reflector-client
3d18h: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 126.96.36.199 Down RR client config change
R1(config-router)#neighbor 188.8.131.52 route-reflector-client
3d18h: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 184.108.40.206 Down RR client config change
The BGP adjacencies do come down when this configuration is added, so this isn’t something you want to do during a peak traffic time.
Once the adjacencies come back up, R2 will have the route to 220.127.116.11/24.
There are other possible solutions to this iBGP limitation, such as configuring BGP confederations. Those solutions are generally used on larger BGP deployments and with other concerns in mind, though, and configuring route reflectors serves this purpose just as well.